Docker Compose version 3 使用详解

Define application stacks built using multiple containers, services, and swarm configurations.

GitHub: https://github.com/docker/compose

install

Docker CE for Windows 10 、Docker CE for Mac 自带 docker-compose,官方建议随 Docker 版本升级。

Linux 请在 GitHub releases 处下载二进制文件,移入 PATH 并赋予可执行权限。

或者执行以下命令进行下载安装。

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$ DOCKER_COMPOSE_VERSION=1.18.0

$ curl -L https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/${DOCKER_COMPOSE_VERSION}/docker-compose-`uname -s`-`uname -m` > docker-compose

$ chmod +x docker-compose

$ sudo mv docker-compose /usr/local/bin

$ docker-compose --version

或者通过 Python 包管理工具 pip 安装。

Command-line completion

fish

~/.config/fish/completions

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$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/docker/compose/master/contrib/completion/fish/docker-compose.fish

bash

官方文档:https://docs.docker.com/compose/completion/

Compose file reference

build

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version: '3'
services:
webapp:
build:
# Dockerfile 目录或 git 仓库网址
context: ./dir | .
# Dockerfile 文件名称
dockerfile: Dockerfile-alternate
# 3.2
cache_from:
- alpine:latest
- corp/web_app:3.14
# 3.3
labels:
com.example.description: "Accounting webapp"
com.example.department: "Finance"
com.example.label-with-empty-value: ""
# 构建时变量,相当于 docker build --build-arg list
args:
buildno: 1
args:
- buildno=1
# 3.5
shm_size: '2gb'
image: webapp:tag

Dockerfile 中包含变量

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ARG buildno
ARG password

RUN echo "Build number: $buildno"
RUN script-requiring-password.sh "$password"

cap_add, cap_drop

没用过,不了解。

Add or drop container capabilities. See man 7 capabilities for a full list.

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cap_add:
- ALL

cap_drop:
- NET_ADMIN
- SYS_ADMIN

command

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command: bundle exec thin -p 3000

command: ["bundle", "exec", "thin", "-p", "3000"]

command:
- bundle
- exec
- thin
- -p
- 3000

configs

3.3

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version: "3.3"
services:
redis:
image: redis:latest
deploy:
replicas: 1
configs:
- my_config
- my_other_config

configs:
my_config:
file: ./my_config.txt
# 使用外部的 config,使用 docker config create 命令创建的 config
my_other_config:
external: true
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version: "3.3"
services:

redis:
image: redis:latest
deploy:
replicas: 1
configs:
- source: my_config
target: /redis_config
uid: '103'
gid: '103'
mode: 0440

configs:
my_config:
file: ./my_config.txt
my_other_config:
external: true

cgroup_parent

Specify an optional parent cgroup for the container.

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cgroup_parent: m-executor-abcd

container_name

不建议使用,此项配置的话,服务将不能扩展。

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container_name: my-web-container

credential_spec

没用过,不了解。

3.3

仅用于 Windows 容器。

deploy

仅用于 Swarm mode

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version: '3'
services:

redis:
image: redis:alpine
deploy:
# 集群中运行该服务的容器个数
mode: replicated
replicas: 6
update_config:
parallelism: 2
delay: 10s
restart_policy:
condition: on-failure
labels:
com.example.description: "This label will appear on the web service"

endpoint_mode

3.3

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deploy:
endpoint_mode: vip
endpoint_mode: dnsrr

mode

https://docs.docker.com/engine/swarm/how-swarm-mode-works/services/#replicated-and-global-services

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deploy:
# 每个节点一个容器 exactly one container per swarm node
mode: global
# 指定数量的容器 a specified number of containers
mode: replicated

placement

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deploy:
placement:
constraints:
# 运行在管理节点
- node.role == manager
- engine.labels.operatingsystem == ubuntu 14.04
preferences:
- spread: node.labels.zone

resources

资源限制

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deploy:
resources:
limits:
cpus: '0.50'
memory: 50M
reservations:
cpus: '0.25'
memory: 20M

restart_policy

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version: "3"
services:
redis:
image: redis:alpine
deploy:
restart_policy:
condition: none | on-failure | any (默认)
# 等待时间
delay: 5s
# 最大尝试次数
max_attempts: 3
# How long to wait before deciding if a restart has succeeded, specified as a duration (default: decide immediately)
window: 120s

update_config

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version: '3.4'
services:
vote:
image: dockersamples/examplevotingapp_vote:before
depends_on:
- redis
deploy:
replicas: 2
update_config:
# 同时升级 config 的容器个数
parallelism: 2
delay: 10s
failure_action: continue | rollback | pause (默认)
monitor:
max_failure_ration:
# 3.4
order: stop-first (默认) | start-first

docker stack deploy 不支持以下参数

build

cgroup_parent

container_name

devices

tmpfs

external_links

links

network_mode

security_opt

stop_signal

sysctls

userns_mode

devices

List of device mappings. Uses the same format as the –device docker client create option.

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devices:
- "/dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0"

depends_on

保证依赖的服务完全启动之后才启动 https://docs.docker.com/compose/startup-order/

依赖关系

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version: '3'
services:

web:
build: .
depends_on:
- db
- redis

redis:
image: redis

db:
image: postgres

dns

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dns: 8.8.8.8

dns:
- 8.8.8.8
- 9.9.9.9
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dns_search: example.com

dns_search:
- dc1.example.com
- dc2.example.com

tmpfs

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tmpfs: /run

tmpfs:
- /run
- /tmp

entrypoint

入口文件

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entrypoint: /code/entrypoint.sh

entrypoint:
- php
- -d
- zend_extension=/usr/local/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20100525/xdebug.so
- -d
- memory_limit=-1
- vendor/bin/phpunit

env_file

从文件读取变量写入镜像 环境变量

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env_file: .env

env_file:
- ./common.env
- ./apps/web.env
- /opt/secrets.env

若变量重复,后边文件的变量会覆盖后边的。

env 文件内容举例

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# 支持 # 号注释
RACK_ENV=development

environment

设置环境变量

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environment:
RACK_ENV: development
SHOW: 'true'
SESSION_SECRET:

environment:
- RACK_ENV=development
- SHOW=true
- SESSION_SECRET

expose

内部暴露端口

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expose:
- "3000"
- "8000"

链接外部容器。不建议使用,建议通过网络进行连接!

CONTAINER:ALIAS

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external_links:
- redis_1
- project_db_1:mysql
- project_db_1:postgresql

extra_hosts

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extra_hosts:
- "somehost:162.242.195.82"
- "otherhost:50.31.209.229"

在容器内 /etc/hosts 写入下面的内容

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162.242.195.82  somehost
50.31.209.229 otherhost

healthcheck

健康检查

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healthcheck:
test: ["CMD", "curl", "-f", "http://localhost"]
# 间隔
interval: 1m30s
# 超时时间
timeout: 10s
# 重试次数
retries: 3
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# Hit the local web app
test: ["CMD", "curl", "-f", "http://localhost"]

# As above, but wrapped in /bin/sh. Both forms below are equivalent.
test: ["CMD-SHELL", "curl -f http://localhost && echo 'cool, it works'"]
test: curl -f https://localhost && echo 'cool, it works'

image

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image: redis
image: ubuntu:14.04
image: tutum/influxdb
image: example-registry.com:4000/postgresql
image: a4bc65fd

isolation

https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/run/#specify-isolation-technology-for-container---isolation

Specify a container’s isolation technology. On Linux, the only supported value is default. On Windows, acceptable values are default, processand hyperv.

labels

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labels:
com.example.description: "Accounting webapp"
com.example.department: "Finance"
com.example.label-with-empty-value: ""

labels:
- "com.example.description=Accounting webapp"
- "com.example.department=Finance"
- "com.example.label-with-empty-value"

不建议使用!

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web:
links:
- db
- db:database
- redis

logging

日志配置

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logging:
driver: syslog
options:
syslog-address: "tcp://192.168.0.42:123"
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driver: "json-file"
driver: "syslog"
driver: "none"
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options:
max-size: "200k"
max-file: "10"
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services:
some-service:
image: some-service
logging:
driver: "json-file"
options:
max-size: "200k"
max-file: "10"

network_mode

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network_mode: "bridge"
network_mode: "host"
network_mode: "none"
network_mode: "service:[service name]"
network_mode: "container:[container name/id]"

networks

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services:
some-service:
networks:
- some-network
- other-network

aliases

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services:
some-service:
networks:
some-network:
aliases:
- alias1
- alias3
other-network:
aliases:
- alias2
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version: '2'

services:
web:
build: ./web
networks:
- new

worker:
build: ./worker
networks:
- legacy

db:
image: mysql
networks:
new:
aliases:
- database
legacy:
aliases:
- mysql

networks:
new:
legacy:

ipv4_address ipv6_address

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version: '2.1'

services:
app:
image: busybox
command: ifconfig
networks:
app_net:
ipv4_address: 172.16.238.10
ipv6_address: 2001:3984:3989::10

networks:
app_net:
driver: bridge
enable_ipv6: true
ipam:
driver: default
config:
-
subnet: 172.16.238.0/24
-
subnet: 2001:3984:3989::/64

pid

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pid: "host"

ports

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ports:
- "3000"
- "3000-3005"
- "8000:8000"
- "9090-9091:8080-8081"
- "49100:22"
- "127.0.0.1:8001:8001"
- "127.0.0.1:5000-5010:5000-5010"
- "6060:6060/udp"

3.2 开始支持长格式

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ports:
- target: 80
published: 8080
protocol: tcp
mode: host

secrets

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version: "3.1"
services:
redis:
image: redis:latest
deploy:
replicas: 1
secrets:
- my_secret
- my_other_secret
secrets:
my_secret:
file: ./my_secret.txt
my_other_secret:
# 使用外部 secret
external: true

长格式

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version: "3.1"
services:
redis:
image: redis:latest
deploy:
replicas: 1
secrets:
- source: my_secret
target: redis_secret
uid: '103'
gid: '103'
mode: 0440
secrets:
my_secret:
file: ./my_secret.txt
my_other_secret:
external: true

security_opt

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security_opt:
- label:user:USER
- label:role:ROLE

stop_grace_period

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stop_grace_period: 1s
stop_grace_period: 1m30s

stop_signal

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stop_signal: SIGUSR1

sysctls

Kernel parameters to set in the container. You can use either an array or a dictionary.

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sysctls:
net.core.somaxconn: 1024
net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies: 0

sysctls:
- net.core.somaxconn=1024
- net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies=0

ulimits

Override the default ulimits for a container. You can either specify a single limit as an integer or soft/hard limits as a mapping.

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ulimits:
nproc: 65535
nofile:
soft: 20000
hard: 40000

userns_mode

Disables the user namespace for this service, if Docker daemon is configured with user namespaces. See dockerd for more information.

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userns_mode: "host"

volumes

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version: "3.2"
services:
web:
image: nginx:alpine
volumes:
- type: volume
source: mydata
target: /data
volume:
nocopy: true
- type: bind
source: ./static
target: /opt/app/static

db:
image: postgres:latest
volumes:
- "/var/run/postgres/postgres.sock:/var/run/postgres/postgres.sock"
- "dbdata:/var/lib/postgresql/data"

volumes:
mydata:
dbdata:
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volumes:
# Just specify a path and let the Engine create a volume
- /var/lib/mysql

# Specify an absolute path mapping
- /opt/data:/var/lib/mysql

# Path on the host, relative to the Compose file
- ./cache:/tmp/cache

# User-relative path
- ~/configs:/etc/configs/:ro

# Named volume
- datavolume:/var/lib/mysql

#

- source:/target:constraints (默认) | cached (宿主机优先)| delegated (容器优先)
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version: "3.2"
services:
web:
image: nginx:alpine
ports:
- "80:80"

networks:
webnet:

volumes:
- type: volume
source: mydata
target: /data
volume:
nocopy: true
- type: bind
source: ./static
target: /opt/app/static

restart

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restart: "no"
restart: always
restart: on-failure
restart: unless-stopped

domainname, hostname, ipc, mac_address, privileged, read_only, shm_size, stdin_open, tty, user, working_dir

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user: postgresql
working_dir: /code

domainname: foo.com
hostname: foo
ipc: host
mac_address: 02:42:ac:11:65:43

privileged: true


read_only: true
shm_size: 64M
stdin_open: true
tty: true

Specifying durations

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2.5s
10s
1m30s
2h32m
5h34m56s

Volume configuration reference

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version: "3"

services:
db:
image: db
volumes:
- data-volume:/var/lib/db
backup:
image: backup-service
volumes:
- data-volume:/var/lib/backup/data

volumes:
data-volume:
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driver: foobar
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driver_opts:
foo: "bar"
baz: 1
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volumes:
data:
external: true
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labels:
com.example.description: "Database volume"
com.example.department: "IT/Ops"
com.example.label-with-empty-value: ""

labels:
- "com.example.description=Database volume"
- "com.example.department=IT/Ops"
- "com.example.label-with-empty-value"
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volumes:
data:
external:
name: actual-name-of-volume

name

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version: '3.4'
volumes:
data:
name: my-app-data
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version: '3.4'
volumes:
data:
external: true
name: my-app-data

Network configuration reference

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driver: overlay

host OR none

用于 docker stack,如果使用 docker-compose 请使用 network_mode

类似于 docker run --net=host

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services:
web:
...
networks:
hostnet: {}

networks:
hostnet:
external:
name: host

类似于 docker run --net=none

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services:
web:
...
networks:
nonet: {}

networks:
nonet:
external:
name: none

driver_opts

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driver_opts:
foo: "bar"
baz: 1

attachable

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networks:
mynet1:
driver: overlay
attachable: true

ipam

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ipam:
driver: default
config:
- subnet: 172.28.0.0/16

name

3.5

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version: '3.5'
networks:
network1:
name: my-app-net
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version: '3.5'
networks:
network1:
external: true
name: my-app-net

configs configuration reference

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configs:
my_first_config:
file: ./config_data
my_second_config:
external: true

3.5

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configs:
my_first_config:
file: ./config_data
my_second_config:
external:
name: redis_config

secrets configuration reference

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secrets:
my_first_secret:
file: ./secret_data
my_second_secret:
external: true

3.5

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secrets:
my_first_secret:
file: ./secret_data
my_second_secret:
external:
name: redis_secret

Variable substitution

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db:
image: "postgres:${POSTGRES_VERSION}"

.env 文件或系统变量中读取变量,来替换 compose 文件中的变量。

docker stack deploy 不支持变量读取。

$VAR ${VAR} 这两种格式都支持。

${VARIABLE:-default} 如果 VARIABLEunset 或为空 (empty) 时设置为 default

${VARIABLE-default} 如果 VARIABLEunset 时设置为 default

使用 $$ 避免解析变量

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web:
build: .
command: "$$VAR_NOT_INTERPOLATED_BY_COMPOSE"

Extension fields

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version: '2.1'
x-custom:
items:
- a
- b
options:
max-size: '12m'
name: "custom"
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logging:
options:
max-size: '12m'
max-file: '5'
driver: json-fi
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version: '2.1'
x-logging:
&default-logging
options:
max-size: '12m'
max-file: '5'
driver: json-file

services:
web:
image: myapp/web:latest
logging: *default-logging
db:
image: mysql:latest
logging: *default-logging
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version: '2.1'
x-volumes:
&default-volume
driver: foobar-storage

services:
web:
image: myapp/web:latest
volumes: ["vol1", "vol2", "vol3"]
volumes:
vol1: *default-volume
vol2:
<< : *default-volume
name: volume02
vol3:
<< : *default-volume
driver: default
name: volume-local

More Information

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